A Clean, Abundant and Natural Source of Electromagnetic Energy for the World.
The magnetic forces generated by permanent magnets are used in a wide variety of applications that include electric motors driven by interactions between permanent magnets and electromagnets. The intrinsic spin or angular momentum of atomic electrons which produces the magnetic forces is an abundant and practical source of clean atomic energy.
Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental forces that act on matter and it is second in effective strength. Electromagnetism, like gravity, is described as having an infinite range. The relationship between moving electrons and magnetic fields is exploited today in a wide variety of applications and technologies that includes the use of electromagnets and permanent magnets. The quantum “spin” or angular momentum of electrons is believed to be responsible for generating the magnetic field in permanent magnets. Most particles with spin possess a magnetic moment. Spin is an intrinsic, quantum mechanical property without any analog in classical physics. Although it is called “spin”, it does not involve rotation of the electron. Ferromagnetism arises from the alignment of the spins of the atomic electrons. Each electron has a magnetic dipole moment that behaves as a microscopic permanent magnet with its magnetic field pointing “up” or “down”. Atoms with unpaired electrons can have a net magnetic moment and thereby generate a microscopic magnetic field. Alignment of these magnetic dipoles in the same direction creates a macroscopic magnetic field. The magnetic field is delivered or carried by a stream of “virtual” photons. The source of energy responsible for the electron’s spin and the momentum of photons is not known. It has been speculated that the energy may come from a loss of mass, dark energy, cosmic radiation or perhaps from another very small dimension. The perturbation theory proposes that a charge particle, the electron, can pass through an intermediate “virtual state” and emit a photon without violating energy conservation. How attracting and repelling forces are exerted between magnetic fields is also not known. Vortices and corkscrew interaction between the photon streams that comprise the magnetic fields has been proposed. The continuous streams of virtual photons that flow from atomic electrons in ferromagnetic material is a source of electromagnetic force that can be converted into mechanical energy which can then be used to generate electricity. This is an abundant and clean source of energy that has not been fully exploited at a time when alternatives to fossil fuels are direly needed.
In the early eighteenth century, long after the discovery of lodestone, the first compound permanent magnet was manufactured and available for commercial use. Recent technological advances in the magnetization of magnetic materials produce extremely powerful and stable permanent magnets.
Today, these powerful permanent magnets are used in a wide variety of applications that include electric motors in which magnetic fields are used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Electric motors that use permanent magnets do not have a field winding that serves as an electromagnet on the stator frame. Instead, the permanent magnet provides the magnetic field which interacts with the rotor field to produce torque. This eliminates the need to power the stator thereby reducing electrical energy consumption. When electricity from an external source passes through the rotor field, it serves as an electromagnet that is attracted to the permanent magnet causing the motor to rotate. For continued rotation, the electromagnet allows the rotor field to repeatedly reverse the polarity of its magnetic field. For centuries, many unsuccessful attempts have been made to eliminate the need for external energy by using permanent magnets to generate the magnetic fields for both the stator and the rotor. Such a permanent magnet motor would be powered entirely by the intrinsic magnetic fields.
The continuous streams of virtual photons that flow from atomic electrons in ferromagnetic material is an abundant and clean source of electromagnetic energy that can be converted into mechanical energy which can then be used to generate electricity. This fountain of virtual photons spewing from a permanent magnet can be viewed as a miniature sun radiating solar energy. However, unlike solar (including wind) energy, the energy from permanent magnets is available continuously, day and night, every day of the year. The density of electromagnetic energy available from permanent magnets at a close distance is vastly greater than the density of solar radiation available on earth from the distant sun. For example, it has been calculated that it would take roughly 861 square feet of solar cells to power a home in Vermont compared to one or two cubic feet of permanent magnets. The 700 tons of coal burned to provide a lifetime of electricity in one household is approximately ten-thousand times the volume of permanent magnets needed to provide the same amount of electricity. Furthermore, permanent magnets are recyclable. Their slow decline in energy, due to a gradual loss of domain alignment, can be restored by realigning the domains. The stability (coercivity) and strength (magnetic moment) of permanent magnets today are extremely high. Rare earth magnets containing lanthanide elements such as neodymium and samarium carry large magnetic moments. For example, a neodymium magnet (Neodymium, Iron and Boron) measuring only 4" x 4" x 2" can have a Brmax of 14,800, a surface field Gauss of 4,933, a pull force of 1,227 pounds, and is stable at 176 F. Unless overheated or physically damaged, the magnet will lose less than 1% of its strength over 10 years. Iron, nickel and cobalt are the most common ferromagnetic substances. Iron is the second most abundant metal on the earth.
The mechanical energy available from permanent magnet machines can be used to generate electricity, which in turn can be used to extract hydrogen from ocean water. The electricity can be delivered through our current grid and individual units can provide electricity off the grid. With minor modifications, hydrogen can replace gasoline, diesel and kerosene as fuel for combustion engines. Together, the electricity and hydrogen produced from permanent magnet motors can be used without a major change in our current infrastructure which further increases its practicality.